Medical/biological Study (experimental study)
Low-frequency electromagnetic fields do not alter responses of inflammatory genes and proteins in human monocytes and immune cell lines. med./biol. By: Bouwens M, de Kleijn S, Ferwerda G, Cuppen JJ, Savelkoul HFJ, Verburg-van Kemenade BML
Published in: Bioelectromagnetics 2012; 33 (3): 226 - 237 ( PubMed Entry , Journal web site )
Aim of study (according to author)
To study the effects of two low frequency electromagnetic fields (a complex, continuously changing field, and a commonly
applied 50 Hz sine wave signal) on gene expression and protein expression of cytokines in three different cell types.
General category: magnetic field, low frequency field, 50/60 Hz (AC)
FIELD View further expo parameters
intact cell/cell culture (in vitro)
Detroit 562 cells (human pharyngeal cells), THP-1 cells (human monocytic leukemia cell line) and human monocytes
Methodsinvestigated material: DNA/RNA (in vitro), intact cell/cell culture (in vitro), cell supernatants
time of investigation: after exposure
Main outcome of study (according to author)
The data showed that neither 30 minutes exposure to a complex, multiple waveform signal, nor 30 minutes exposure to a 50 Hz sine wave signal induced any modulatory effects in cytokine gene expression or protein expression
in an LPS-stimulated monocyte/macrophage
cell line, freshly isolated monocytes, or a pharyngeal epithelial cell line. Therefore, the authors do not expect that these exposure conditions will modulate immune signaling pathways.
(Study character: medical/biological study, experimental study, full/main study)
Study funded byRelated articles
- Kleijn SD et al. (2011): Extremely low frequency electromagnetic field exposure does not modulate...
- Collard JF et al. (2011): In vitro study of the effects of ELF electric fields on gene expression in...
- Gomez-Ochoa I et al. (2011): Pulsed electromagnetic fields decrease proinflammatory cytokine secretion...
- Selmaoui B et al. (2011): Acute exposure to 50-Hz magnetic fields increases interleukin-6 in young...
- Salerno S et al. (2009): Reversible effect of magnetic fields on human lymphocyte activation patterns:...
- Cuppen J et al. (2007): Immune stimulation in fish and chicken through weak low frequency...
- Elmusharaf MA et al. (2007): Antagonistic effect of electromagnetic field exposure on coccidiosis infection...
- Salerno S et al. (2006): Reversible effect of MR and ELF magnetic fields (0.5 T and 0.5 mT) on human...
- Ikeda K et al. (2003): No effects of extremely low frequency magnetic fields found on cytotoxic...
- Sontag W (2000): Modulation of cytokine production by interferential current in differentiated...
- Pessina GP et al. (1998): Pulsed electromagnetic fields enhance the induction of cytokines by peripheral...
- Aldinucci C et al. (1998): Electromagnetic fields enhance the release of both interferon gamma and...
- Pessina GP et al. (1997): Short cycles of both static and pulsed electromagnetic fields have no effect on...
- Jonai H et al. (1996): Cytokine profile of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells exposed to 50 Hz...
- Cossarizza A et al. (1993): Exposure to low frequency pulsed electromagnetic fields increases interleukin-1...
- Bersani F et al. (1989): Effects of ELF pulsed electromagnetic fields on immunocompetent cells.
- Cossarizza A et al. (1989): Extremely low frequency pulsed electromagnetic fields increase interleukin-2...
Glossary: 50 Hz, AC, assay, biological, biosynthesis, cell, cell culture, cell division, cell line, cell viability, cytokine, DNA, electromagnetic fields, endpoint, epithelial, exposure, flow cytometry, full/main study, gene expression, human, immune, induced, interleukins, in vitro, leukemia, low frequency, LPS, macrophage, magnetic field, magnetic flux density, molecular, monocyte, proliferation, protein expression, quantitative, Real-time PCR, RNA, signal, signaling pathways, sine wave, stimulated, supernatants, TNF, trypan blue, waveform
© 1997 - 2013, Research Center for Bioelectromagnetic Interaction (femu - RWTH Aachen University, Germany).
The informational contents of the EMF-Portal are available free of charge for personal and strictly non-commercial purposes. The informational contents of the EMF-Portal may be retrieved, read or printed, but not (i) copied, (ii) changed or (iii) saved in any format, neither electronically nor on other storage media. Permissions for publication, reproduction, commercial purposes or third party propagation of contents of the EMF-Portal – including partial excerpts or revised formats – have to be obtained from the femu Aachen University-copyright holders. By retrieving, reading or printing these documents you expressly state your agreement with all conditions in the fine print.