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Medical/biological Study (experimental study)

2.45 GHz microwave irradiation-induced oxidative stress affects implantation or pregnancy in mice, Mus musculus. med./biol.

By: Shahin S, Singh VP, Shukla RK, Dhawan A, Gangwar RK, Singh SP, Chaturvedi CM
Published in: Appl Biochem Biotechnol 2013; 169 (5): 1727 - 1751 (PubMed | Journal website)

Aim of study (according to author)
To study the 2.45 GHz low level microwave exposure-induced stress response and its effect on implantation or pregnancy in female mice.
Background/further details:
Female mice were divided into two groups (n=6 per group) and exposed or sham exposed for 45 days. After 20 days of exposure, respectively two mice were mated with one male mouse for 5 days (exposure of female mice continued). Afterwards, mice were exposed for another 20 days.
The whole experiment was repeated.


General category: low level microwaves, CW (continuous wave), 2.45 GHz

Field characteristicsParameters
2.45 GHz
continuous wave (CW)
exposure duration: continuous for 2 h/day on 45 days
power: 64.776 mW
power flux density: 0.033549 mW/cm²
SAR: 0.023023 W/kg (whole body)

FIELD View further expo parameters

Exposed system:
animal (species/strain): mouse/Parkes
whole body exposure

Endpoint/Measurement parameters/Methodology

investigated material: intact cell/cell culture (in vitro), blood samples, uterus, tissue homogenates (liver, kidney, ovary)
investigation on living organism
investigated organ systems: reproductive system, brain/CNS

time of investigation: before, during and after exposure

Main outcome of study (according to author)
In the exposed group, an unequal/asymmetrical distribution of embryos in the two uterine horns and reduced inter-embryo spaces were observed as compared to the control group. Additionally, no pups were born in the exposed group while a normal number of pups was born in the sham exposed group.
It was found that the hemoglobin content as well as the number of erythrocytes and leukocytes and the neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio increased significantly in the exposed group compared to the sham exposed one.
In the comet assay, the brain cells of exposed mice showed a significant increase in the tail moment, in the tail DNA amount and the tail length when compared to control brain cells, i.e. a DNA damage was found in the exposed group.
In the exposed group, a significant decrease in total nitrite and nitrate concentrations was observed in the plasma when compared to the control group.
The levels of estradiol and progesterone in the plasma were increased in the exposed group in comparison to the sham exposed group, but only the value for estradiol was statistically significant.
A significant elevated level of reactive oxygen species in the kidney, liver and ovary was observed in the exposed group as compared to the control group.
Regarding the antioxidant enzyme activities, the activities of the superoxide dismutase, the catalase and the glutathione peroxidase were significantly decreased in the kidney, liver and ovary of the exposed animals in comparison to the sham exposed ones.
The authors conclude that an exposure to low level microwaves (2.45 GHz) could affect the implantation or pregnancy in mice through oxidative stress.

(Study character: medical/biological study, experimental study, full/main study)

Study funded by

Related articles i
Glossary: animals, antioxidant, biological, blood, brain, catalase, cell culture, cells, CNS, colorimetry, comet assay, control group, CW, DNA, ELISA, embryo, endocrine, endpoint, enzyme activities, erythrocytes, estradiol, exposed, exposure, full/main study, gel electrophoresis, GHz, glutathione peroxidase, hematology, hemocytometer, hemoglobin, Homogenates, implantation, in vitro, kidney, leukocytes, liver, lymphocyte, macroscopic, microwaves, native, neurological, neutrophil, nitrate, nitrite, organism, ovary, oxidative stress, plasma, power, power flux density, pregnancy, progesterone, reactive oxygen species, rectal temperature, reproductive system, SAR, sham exposed, significant, species, spectrophotometry, statistically, strain, stress, superoxide dismutase, tissue, uterine, whole body exposure
Exposure: low level microwaves, CW (continuous wave), 2.45 GHz

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