Medical/biological Study (experimental study)
Melatonin modulates wireless (2.45 GHz)-induced oxidative injury through TRPM2 and voltage gated Ca(2+) channels in brain and dorsal root ganglion in rat. med./biol.
By: Naziroglu M, Celik O, Ozgul C, Cig B, Dogan S, Bal R, Gumral N, Rodriguez AB, Pariente JA
Published in: Physiol Behav 2012; 105 (3): 683 - 692 (PubMed
| Journal website
Aim of study (according to author)
To investigate the effects of a 2.45 GHz electromagnetic field exposure on the brain cortex and the dorsal root ganglion of rats, as well as the possible protective effects of melatonin administration.
4 groups (n=8 per group) were examined: 1.) cage control, 2.) sham exposure + daily injection of saline, 3.) exposure and 4.) exposure + daily injection of melatonin (10 mg/kg).
Before the animals were killed, an EEG was recorded. Afterwards, brain homogenates and the dorsal root ganglion were investigated for signs of oxidative stress. Additionally, in the dorsal root ganglion, the intracellular calcium concentration was determined and the patch-clamp technique was conducted.
Exposure FIELD View further expo parameters
General category: microwaves, PW (pulsed wave), 2.45 GHz, co-exposure
animal (species/strain): rat/Wistar albino
whole body exposure
investigated material: intact cell
), isolated dorsal
, tissue homogenates
investigation on living organism
investigated organ system: brain
time of investigation: after exposure
Main outcome of study (according to author)
In general, no differences were found between the cage control (group 1) and the sham exposed group (group 2).
In the exposed group (group 3), the number of spikes in the EEG was increased compared to the control groups (group 1+2). However, no differences occurred in the EEG between the exposed group treated with melatonin (group 4) and the control groups (groups 1+2).
In the dorsal root ganglia of exposed rats (group 3), the cell viability was significantly decreased compared to the control groups (group 1+2). In contrast, there was no difference in the cell viability between the melatonin treated exposure group (group 4) and the control groups (groups 1+2). Additionally, in the exposed group (group 3), the level of lipid peroxidation and the intracellular calcium release were increased in comparison to the control groups (groups 1+2). Again, no differences in the level of lipid peroxidation and the intracellular calcium release were found between the melatonin treated exposure group (group 4) and the control groups (group 1+2). The current densities of the neurons were higher in the exposed group (group 3) than in the control groups (groups 1+2).
In brain homogenates of exposed rats, treated with melatonin (group 4), an increased concentration of vitamin E was found, whereas the concentration of vitamin E in the other groups (groups 1+2+3) did not change.
Remaining brain homogenate and dorsal root ganglion antioxidant values were not affected by exposure or melatonin administration.
The authors conclude that exposure to a wireless device of 2.45 GHz could induce oxidative stress in the dorsal root ganglion and that melatonin could prevent such a reaction.
(Study character: medical/biological study, experimental study, full/main study, double-blind study)
Study funded by
- Suleyman Demirel University, Turkey
- Djordjevic B et al. (2015): The effect of melatonin on the liver of rats exposed to microwave radiation.
- Ghazizadeh V et al. (2014): Electromagnetic radiation (Wi-Fi) and epilepsy induce calcium entry and...
- Sokolovic D et al. (2013): Melatonin protects rat thymus against oxidative stress caused by exposure to...
- Kesari KK et al. (2012): Pathophysiology of microwave radiation: effect on rat brain.
- Sokolovic D et al. (2012): The effect of melatonin on body mass and behaviour of rats during an exposure...
- Kesari KK et al. (2011): 900-MHz microwave radiation promotes oxidation in rat brain.
- Gumral N et al. (2009): Effects of Selenium and L-Carnitine on Oxidative Stress in Blood of Rat Induced...
- Naziroglu M et al. (2009): Modulator effects of L-carnitine and selenium on wireless devices (2.45...
- Dasdag S et al. (2009): Effect of mobile phone exposure on apoptotic glial cells and status of...
- Sokolovic D et al. (2008): Melatonin reduces oxidative stress induced by chronic exposure of microwave...
- Meral I et al. (2007): Effects of 900-MHz electromagnetic field emitted from cellular phone on brain...
- Koylu H et al. (2006): Melatonin modulates 900 Mhz microwave-induced lipid peroxidation changes in rat...
- Aweda MA et al. (2003): Effects of 2.45 GHz microwave exposures on the peroxidation status in Wistar...
, brain cortex
, cage control
, cell culture
, cell division
, cell viability
, control groups
, current densities
, double-blind study
, electric field strength
, electromagnetic field
, enzyme activity
, full/main study
, glutathione peroxidase
, in vitro
, ion channel
, lipid peroxidation
, oxidative stress
, patch-clamp technique
, power flux density
, sham exposed
, thiobarbituric acid
, vitamin A
, vitamin C
, vitamin E
, whole body exposureExposure: microwaves
), 2.45 GHz
Do you want to give a feedback on our extract of the article?