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Medical/biological Study (experimental study)

Melatonin modulates wireless (2.45 GHz)-induced oxidative injury through TRPM2 and voltage gated Ca(2+) channels in brain and dorsal root ganglion in rat. med./biol.

By: Naziroglu M, Celik O, Ozgul C, Cig B, Dogan S, Bal R, Gumral N, Rodriguez AB, Pariente JA
Published in: Physiol Behav 2012; 105 (3): 683 - 692 (PubMed | Journal website)

Aim of study (according to author)
To investigate the effects of a 2.45 GHz electromagnetic field exposure on the brain cortex and the dorsal root ganglion of rats, as well as the possible protective effects of melatonin administration.
Background/further details:
4 groups (n=8 per group) were examined: 1.) cage control, 2.) sham exposure + daily injection of saline, 3.) exposure and 4.) exposure + daily injection of melatonin (10 mg/kg).
Before the animals were killed, an EEG was recorded. Afterwards, brain homogenates and the dorsal root ganglion were investigated for signs of oxidative stress. Additionally, in the dorsal root ganglion, the intracellular calcium concentration was determined and the patch-clamp technique was conducted.


General category: microwaves, PW (pulsed wave), 2.45 GHz, co-exposure

Field characteristicsParameters
2.45 GHz
pulsed (PW)
exposure duration: continuous for 1 h/day on 30 days
electric field strength: 11 V/m
power flux density: 1 mW/m²
SAR: 0.143 W/kg (whole body) (at the rat's head with E = 10 V/m)
SAR: 0.1 W/kg spatial average (whole body)

FIELD View further expo parameters

Exposed system:
animal (species/strain): rat/Wistar albino
whole body exposure

Endpoint/Measurement parameters/Methodology

investigated material: intact cell/cell culture (in vitro), isolated dorsal root ganglion, tissue homogenates (brain cortex)
investigation on living organism
investigated organ system: brain/CNS

time of investigation: after exposure

Main outcome of study (according to author)
In general, no differences were found between the cage control (group 1) and the sham exposed group (group 2).
In the exposed group (group 3), the number of spikes in the EEG was increased compared to the control groups (group 1+2). However, no differences occurred in the EEG between the exposed group treated with melatonin (group 4) and the control groups (groups 1+2).
In the dorsal root ganglia of exposed rats (group 3), the cell viability was significantly decreased compared to the control groups (group 1+2). In contrast, there was no difference in the cell viability between the melatonin treated exposure group (group 4) and the control groups (groups 1+2). Additionally, in the exposed group (group 3), the level of lipid peroxidation and the intracellular calcium release were increased in comparison to the control groups (groups 1+2). Again, no differences in the level of lipid peroxidation and the intracellular calcium release were found between the melatonin treated exposure group (group 4) and the control groups (group 1+2). The current densities of the neurons were higher in the exposed group (group 3) than in the control groups (groups 1+2).
In brain homogenates of exposed rats, treated with melatonin (group 4), an increased concentration of vitamin E was found, whereas the concentration of vitamin E in the other groups (groups 1+2+3) did not change.
Remaining brain homogenate and dorsal root ganglion antioxidant values were not affected by exposure or melatonin administration.
The authors conclude that exposure to a wireless device of 2.45 GHz could induce oxidative stress in the dorsal root ganglion and that melatonin could prevent such a reaction.

(Study character: medical/biological study, experimental study, full/main study, double-blind study)

Study funded by

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Glossary: animal, antioxidant, assay, beta-carotene, biological, brain, brain cortex, cage control, calcium, cell, cell culture, cell division, cell viability, CNS, co-exposure, colorimetric, control groups, current densities, currents, dorsal, double-blind study, EEG, electric field strength, electromagnetic field, electrophysiological, endpoint, enzyme activity, exposed, exposure, fluorophotometry, full/main study, ganglia, GHz, glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, homogenate, injection, intracellular, in vitro, ion channel, lipid peroxidation, melatonin, microwaves, neurological, Neurons, organism, oxidative stress, patch-clamp technique, power flux density, proliferation, protein, pulsed, PW, rat/Wistar, rats, reactive, SAR, sham exposed, significantly, species, spectrophotometry, Spikes, strain, thiobarbituric acid, tissue, transmembrane, vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin E, whole body exposure
Exposure: microwaves, PW (pulsed wave), 2.45 GHz, co-exposure

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