Epidemiological Study (case-control study)
Case-control study on radiology work, medical x-ray investigations, and use of cellular telephones as risk factors for brain tumors. epidemiol. By: Hardell L, Nasman A, Pahlson A, Hallquist A
Published in: MedGenMed 2000; 2 (2): E2 ( PubMed Entry , Journal web site )
Aim of study (according to author)
In this study, further analyses on the database of a Swedish case-control study (see publication 1015) were performed on the risk of brain tumours and the use of cellular telephones, exposure to ionizing radiation and chemicals.
Furthermore, there is an additional, similar analysis on the database of the same case-control study (publication 1015) in publication 9009.
Endpoint/type of risk estimationEstimate of incidence by odds ratio (OR)
groups of exposure:
- mobile communication system, analog mobile phone, digital mobile phone, GSM, NMT, magnetic field, 50/60 Hz (AC), PC/TV monitor, personal exposure, non-EMF exposure
- type of exposure: occupational, personal
- assessment by questionnaire (use of cellular phone during leisure time and in occupations, years, mean number of minutes of daily use, type (analog and digital), use of hands-free devices, use in car with fixed external antenna, ear most frequently used during calls)
- assessment by interview (supplementing data)
- assessment by calculation (cumulative use in hours)
|group 1: || tumor localization brain hemisphere, ipsilateral cellular phone use |
|group 2: || tumor localization brain hemisphere, contralateral use |
|group 3: || tumor localization brain hemisphere, ipsilateral and contralateral use |
|group 4: || tumor localization frontal, frontoparietal, parietal, or parieto-occipital, ipsilateral use |
|group 5: || tumor localization frontal, frontoparietal, parietal, or parieto-occipital, contralateral use |
|group 6: || tumor localization frontal, frontoparietal, parietal, or parieto-occipital, ipsilateral and contralateral use |
|group 7: || tumor localization temporal, occipital or temporoparietal, ipsilateral use |
|group 8: || tumor localization temporal, occipital or temporoparietal, contralateral use |
|group 9: || tumor localization temporal, occipital or temporoparietal, ipsilateral and contralateral use |
Further parameters acquired by questionnaire (medical x-ray examinations, physicians and radiology work, exposure to chemicals, working conditions, years and number of days per year of exposure, drinking habits of low-calorie drinks (containing aspartame))
- case group
men and women, aged from 20 to 80 years
diagnosis: brain tumor, histopathologically verified
observation period: 1994 - 1996
study location: Sweden (Uppsala-Örebro region, Stockholm region)
source of data: Oncological Centres
exclusion criteria: deceased, too ill, recurrent tumor
- control group
matching: sex, age, area, 1:2 (case:control)
|Study size || cases || controls |
|number eligible ||270||-|
|number contacted ||233||466|
|number participating ||217||439|
|number available for analysis ||209||425|
Other: anatomic tumor localization assessed for 198 patients
Statistical analysis using multivariate analysis
Results/conclusion (according to author)
Only results concerning exposure to electromagnetic fields are listed within the EMF-Portal.
No association was found with occupations with potential exposure to extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields (eg., electrician, electronics work, lineman, or telecommunication work) and the risk for brain tumor. The use of a video display unit did not increase the risk. An increased risk for brain tumor was found for ipsilateral use of cellular phone in the anatomic area with highest microwave dose.
Limitations (according to author): The result for cellular phone exposure is based on low numbers (13 cases) and must be interpreted with caution.
(Study character: epidemiological study, case-control study)
Study funded by
- Cancer och Allergifonden (Cancer and Allergy Foundation), Sweden
- Örebro Cancer Fund, Sweden
- Swedish Medical Research Council (SMRC), Sweden
- Lahkola A et al. (2007): Mobile phone use and risk of glioma in 5 North European countries.
- Klaeboe L et al. (2007): Use of mobile phones in Norway and risk of intracranial tumours.
- Schüz J et al. (2006): Cellular telephone use and cancer risk: update of a nationwide Danish cohort.
- Schüz J et al. (2006): Cellular phones, cordless phones, and the risks of glioma and meningioma...
- Hardell L et al. (2006): Case-control study of the association between the use of cellular and cordless...
- Lönn S et al. (2005): Long-term mobile phone use and brain tumor risk.
- Schoemaker MJ et al. (2005): Mobile phone use and risk of acoustic neuroma: results of the Interphone...
- Hardell L et al. (2005): Case-Control Study on Cellular and Cordless Telephones and the Risk for...
- Hardell L et al. (2005): Use of cellular telephones and brain tumour risk in urban and rural areas.
- Christensen HC et al. (2005): Cellular telephones and risk for brain tumors: a population-based, incident...
- Hardell L et al. (2004): Cellular and cordless telephone use and the association with brain tumors in...
- Hardell L et al. (2003): Further aspects on cellular and cordless telephones and brain tumours.
- Auvinen A et al. (2002): Brain tumors and salivary gland cancers among cellular telephone users.
- Hardell L et al. (2002): Cellular and cordless telephones and the risk for brain tumours.
- Hardell L et al. (2002): Case-control study on the use of cellular and cordless phones and the risk for...
- Inskip PD et al. (2001): Cellular-telephone use and brain tumors.
- Hardell L et al. (2001): Ionizing radiation, cellular telephones and the risk for brain tumours.
- Johansen C et al. (2001): Cellular telephones and cancer--a nationwide cohort study in Denmark.
- Muscat JE et al. (2000): Handheld cellular telephone use and risk of brain cancer.
- Hardell L et al. (1999): Use of cellular telephones and the risk for brain tumours: A case-control...
Glossary: 50/60 Hz, AC, analog, anatomic, antenna, brain, brain tumor, calorie, case-control study, cellular phone, chemicals, cumulative, digital, dose, ear, electronics, EMF, epidemiological, exposure, extremely low-frequency, GSM, histopathologically, incidence, ionizing radiation, ipsilateral, magnetic field, matching, mean, microwave, mobile communication, NMT, occupational exposure, oncological, OR, PC, population-based, potential, questionnaire, radiology, risk, statistical, telecommunication, tumor, TV, video display, X-ray
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