Medical/biological Study (experimental study)
Induction of adaptive response: pre-exposure of mice to 900 MHz radiofrequency fields reduces hematopoietic damage caused by subsequent exposure to ionising radiation. med./biol. By: Cao Y, Xu Q, Jin ZD, Zhou Z, Nie JH, Tong J
Published in: Int J Radiat Biol 2011; 87 (7): 720 - 728 ( PubMed Entry , Journal web site )
Aim of study (according to author)
To study whether an adaptive response can be induced in mice which were pre-exposed to 900 MHz radiofrequency fields and to determine the
optimal power intensity needed for radiofrequency pre-exposure in order to achieve considerable "protection" from subsequent ionizing radiation-induced damage.
For the survival experiment, a total of 140 mice were divided into the following five groups (each group n=28): 1) 8 Gy gamma radiation alone (lethal dose), 2) radiofrequency exposure at 12 µW/cm² + gamma radiation on day 15 after the last day of exposure, 3) radiofrequency exposure at 120 µW/cm² + gamma radiation on day 15, 4) radiofrequency exposure at 1200 µW/cm² + gamma radiation on day 15, 5) positive control (free radical scavenger treatment (amifostine) + gamma radiation.
For all other experiments 144 animals were divided into the following groups (each group n=12): 1) three groups of unexposed controls, 2) 8 Gy gamma radiation (lethal dose; for organ weight evaluation) or 5 Gy gamma radiation (for all other experiments) on day 15, 3) three groups of 120 µW/cm² radiofrequency exposure (for all experiments), 4) one group at 120 µW/cm² radiofrequency exposure + 8 Gy gamma radiation (lethal dose; for organ weight evaluation) or two groups at at 120 µW/cm² radiofrequency exposure + 5 Gy gamma radiation (for colony forming units in bone marrow cells and gene expression) on day 15.
Additionally, for evaluation of colony forming units in the spleen of lethally irradiated "recipient" mice, 12 donor mice (each group n=3) were divided into 1) an unexposed control group, 2) 5 Gy gamma radiation only group, 3) group of 120 µW/cm² radiofrequency exposure and 4) group of 120 µW/cm² radiofrequency exposure + 5 Gy gamma radiation. Following gamma radiation, the mice were sacrificed, the nucletaed cells of the bone marrow were collected, pooled for each group and injected in the tail vein of recipient mice (each group n=10). Recipient mice were exposed to a lethal dose of 8.5 Gy gamma radiation 4-6 h before injection of bone marrow cells.
- effects on immunological system: effects on hematopoietic system
- others: survival
General category: radio frequency field, microwaves, CW (continuous wave), co-exposure
FIELD View further expo parameters
animal (species/strain): mouse/Kunming
whole body exposure
Methodsinvestigated material: DNA/RNA (in vitro), intact cell/cell culture (in vitro), isolated organ (in vitro)
investigation on living organism
investigated organ system: immune system, hematopoietic system
time of investigation: during and after exposure
Main outcome of study (according to author)
The data indicated significant increases in survival time, in the weights of spleen and thymus, number of colony forming units in the bone marrow and spleen of lethally irradiated recipient mice, and a reduction in the hematopoietic tissue damage in radiofrequency pre-exposed mice (120 µW/cm²) which were gamma radiated (as compared with those exposed to gamma radiation alone). This was accompanied by significantly increased expression of cell cycle-related genes (different cyclins) in hematopoietic cells. The findings suggested that the
120 µW/cm² power intensity for 900 MHz radiofrequency pre-exposure
was adequate and optimum to lead to the
maximum protection of hematopoietic tissue damage induced by subsequent exposure to gamma radiation.
The authors conclude, that pre-exposure of mice to 900 MHz radiofrequency fields has resulted in a significant reduction in hematopoietic damage caused by subsequent exposure to ionizing radiation. This phenomenon appears to be similar to that of the "adaptive response" which is well documented in scientific literature.
(Study character: medical/biological study, experimental study, full/main study, blind study)
Study funded by
- Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST), China
- National Natural Science Foundation (NSFC), China
- Soochow University, China
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Glossary: adaptive, animal, biological, biosynthesis, blind study, bone marrow, cell culture, cell cycle, cells, co-exposure, colony forming units, control group, CW, cyclins, DNA, donor, dose, endpoint, exposed, exposure, expression, free radical scavenger, full/main study, gamma radiation, gene expression, genes, Gy, hematopoietic, hematopoietic system, immune system, induced, injected, in vitro, ionizing radiation, irradiated, lead, lethally, MHz, microwaves, molecular, organ, organism, pluripotent, pooled, positive control, power, power flux density, progenitor cells, radiofrequency, recipient, reduction, RNA, RT-PCR, SAR, significant, species, spleen, stem cells, strain, survival time, thymus, tissue, vein, whole body exposure
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