Medical/biological Study (experimental study)
Effects of low level microwave radiation on carcinogenesis in Swiss Albino mice. med./biol. By: Paulraj R, Behari J
Published in: Mol Cell Biochem 2011; 348 (1-2): 191 - 197 ( PubMed Entry , Journal web site )
Aim of study (according to author)
To study the effect of low level radiofrequency (112 MHz amplitude modulated at 16 Hz) and 2.45 GHz exposures on mice sensitized to tumor initiated
by DMBA or transplanted with ascites carcinoma cells.
The study was divided into two parts. Part A: a single dose of the chemical carcinogen DMBA (100 µg/animal) was applied on the skin of the mice and were exposed to 112 MHz or to 2.45 GHz (2 h/day, 3 days/week for 16 weeks). In part A seven groups (n=18) were included: 1) sham exposure group, 2) DMBA group, 3) DMBA + 112 MHz exposure group, 4) DMBA + 2.45 GHz exposure group, 5) 112 MHz exposure group, 6) 2.45 GHz exposure group, 7) positive control: DMBA + croton oil (i.e. with TPA, as tumor promoter).
Part B: mice were transplanted intraperitoneally with ascites carcinoma cells (Ehrlich-Lettre ascites, strain E; 8 x 108 per mouse). These mice were exposed to 112 MHz or 2.45 GHz for a period of 14 days. The following groups (n=8) were included: two different sham exposure groups, 112 MHz exposure group, and 2.45 GHz exposure group.
General category: radio frequency field, microwaves, low level microwaves, AM amplitude modulation, 2.45 GHz, co-exposure
|field 1: 112 MHz |
exposure duration: experiment A: continuous for 2 h/day, 3 days/week for 16 weeks; Experiment B: continuous for 2 h/day for 14 days
|power flux density: 1 mW/cm² |
SAR: 0.75 W/kg
|field 2: 2.45 GHz |
exposure duration: experiment A: continuous for 2 h/day, 3 days/week for 16 weeks; experiment B: continuous for 2 h/day on 14 days
|power flux density: 0.34 mW/cm² |
SAR: 0.1 W/kg (for a small mouse)
FIELD View further expo parameters
animal (species/strain): mouse/Swiss albino
whole body exposure
time of investigation: during and after exposure
- cancer: skin tumor development (visual check) and number of ascites cells (haemocytometer und light microscopy)
- others: body weight
Main outcome of study (according to author)
The data did not show any statistically significant differences in the overall skin tumor incidence,
latency to skin tumor onset, number of tumors per tumor bearing mice, or tumor size between the 112 MHz or 2.45 GHz exposure and sham exposure groups. Similarly, an application of a single dose of DMBA followed by 112 MHz or 2.45 GHz exposure also did not produce any visible extra tumors on the skin of mice.
On the other hand, mice transplanted with ascites carcinoma cells showed a slight increase in the cell numbers as compared to the control group. However, the increase was insignificant.
These data show that low level radiofrequency or microwave exposure do not alter tumor growth and development.
(Study character: medical/biological study, experimental study, full/main study)
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Glossary: amplitude modulated, animal, ascites, biological, cancer, carcinogen, carcinogenesis, carcinoma, cell, chemical, co-exposure, control group, DMBA, dose, endpoint, exposed, exposure, full/main study, GHz, growth, haemocytometer, Hz, incidence, initiated, intraperitoneally, latency, light microscopy, MHz, microwave, positive control, power flux density, radiofrequency, SAR, sham exposure, significant, skin, species, statistically, strain, TPA, tumor, tumor promoter, visual, whole body exposure
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